Scientific Studies and References

BIOSTAR BELIEVES IN THE SCIENCE OF NATURE

“ScienceEvery formula BioStar creates is backed by research. Each ingredient is carefully considered and studied before we will consider including it in our mission for authentic nutrition.  Here you will find our sources of information for our blog, our product research, and more.  

 

BIOSTAR INGREDIENTS

Almonds

Chen, Oliver & Milbury, Paul & Lapsley, Karen & Blumberg, Jeffrey. (2005). Flavonoids from almond skins are bioavailable and act synergistically with vitamins C and E to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation. The Journal of Nutrition, 135(6), 1366-73.

Jenkins, David J.A. & Kendall, Cyril W.C. & Josse, Andrea R. & Salvatore, Sara & Brighenti, Furio & Augustin, Livia & Ellis, Peter & Vidgen, Ed & Rao, Venket. (2006). Almonds decrease postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative damage in healthy individuals. The Journal of Nutrition, 136(12), 2987-92.

Aloe vera

Darabighane, Babak & Zarei, Abolfazl & Zare Shahneh, Ahmad. (2012). The effects of different levels of Aloe vera gel on ileum microflora population and immune response in broilers: A comparison to antibiotic effects. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 40(1), 31-6.

Amalaki (Indian gooseberry)

Biswas, Tuhin & Chakrabarti, Shrabana & Pandit, Srikanta & Jana, Utpalendu & Dey, Subrata. (2014). Pilot study evaluating the use of Emblica officinalis standardized fruit extract in cardio-respiratory improvement and antioxidant status of volunteers with smoking history. Journal of Herbal Medicine, 4(4), 188-94.

Fatima, Nishat & Pingali, Usharani & Muralidhar, N. (2013). Study of pharmacodynamic interaction of Phyllanthus emblica extract with clopidogrel and ecosprin in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology, 21(5), 579-85.

Fatima, Nishat & Pingali, Usharani & Pilli, Raveendranadh. (2014). Evaluation of Phyllanthus emblica extract on cold pressor induced cardiovascular changes in healthy human subjects. Pharmacognosy Research, 6(1), 29-35.

Khanna, Savita & Das, Amitava & Spieldenner, James & Rink, Cameron & Roy, Sashwati. (2015). Supplementation of a standardized extract from Phyllanthus emblica improves cardiovascular risk factors and platelet aggregation in overweight/class-1 obese adults. Journal of Medicinal Food, 18(4), 415-20.

Pingali, Usharani & Fatima, Nishat & Muralidhar, Nizampatnam. (2013). Effects of Phyllanthus emblica extract on endothelial dysfunction and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 6, 275-84.

Usharani, P. & Kishan, P.V. & Fatima, Nishat & Uday, Kumar C. (2014). A comparative study to evaluate the effect of highly standardised aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus emblica… on endothelial dysfunction… . International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 5(7), 2687-97.

Astaxanthin

Baskin, Carole & Hinchcliff, Kenneth & Disilvestro, Robert & A. Reinhart, Gregg & Hayek, Michael & Chew, Boon & R. Burr, John & A. Swenson, Richard. (2000). Effects of dietary antioxidant supplementation on oxidative damage during prolonged exercise in sled dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 61(8), 886-91.

Capelli, B. & Cysweski, G.R. (2006) Astaxanthin: King of the Carotenoids. Kailua-Kona, HI: Cyanotech.

Lee, Seon-Jin & Bai, Se-Kyung & Lee, Kwang-Soon & Namkoong, Seung & Na, Hee-Jun & Ha, Kwon-Soo & Han, Jeong-A & … Misun, Kim. (2003). Astaxanthin inhibits nitric oxide production and inflammatory gene expression by suppressing IκB kinase-dependent NF-κB activation. Molecules and Cells, 16(1), 97-105.

Park, Jean Soon & Chyun, Jong Hee & Kim, Yoo Kyung & Line, Larry L. & Chew, Boon. (2010). Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans. Nutrition & Metabolism, 7(1), 18.

Park, J.S. & Mathison, Bridget & Hayek, Michael & Zhang, Jin & Reinhart, G.A. & Chew, Boon. (2012). Astaxanthin modulates age-associated mitochondrial dysfunction in healthy dogs. Journal of Animal Science, 91(1), 268-75.

Beta-glucan (see also Oat Bran and Medicinal Mushrooms)

Tsikitis, Vassiliki & Albina, Jorge E. & Reichner, Jonathan S. (2004). β-glucan affects leukocyte navigation in a complex chemotactic gradient. Surgery, 136(2), 384-9.

Biotin

EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed. (2012). Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of biotin as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG. European Food Safety Authority Journal, 10(11).

Lindner, Arno & Vonwittke, P. & Frigg, M. (1992). Effect of biotin supplementation on the VLa4 of thoroughbred horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 12(3), 149-152.

Reilly, J.D. & Cottrell, D.F. & Martin, Richard & Cuddeford, Derek. (1998). Effect of supplementary dietary biotin on hoof growth and hoof growth rate in ponies: A controlled trial. Equine Veterinary Journal, 30(suppl.), 51-7.

Zenker, W. & Josseck, H. & Geyer, Hans. (1995). Histological and physical assessment of poor hoof horn quality in Lipizzaner horses and a therapeutic trial with biotin and a placebo. Equine Veterinary Journal, 27(3), 183-91.

Blueberry

Dunlap, Kriya & Reynolds, Arleigh & Duffy, Lawrence. (2006). Total antioxidant power in sled dogs supplemented with blueberries and the comparison of blood parameters associated with exercise. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology: Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 143(4), 429-34.

Minich, Deanna & Lerman, Robert & Darland, Gary & Babish, John & Pacioretty, Linda & Bland, Jeffrey & Tripp, Matthew. (2010). Hop and acacia phytochemicals decreased lipotoxicity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, db/db mice, and individuals with metabolic syndrome. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 4(2010).

Boswellia

Siddiqui, Mahtab. (2011). Boswellia serrata, a potential anti-inflammatory agent: An overview. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 73(3), 255-61.

Broccoli

Clarke, John & Riedl, Kenneth & Bella, Deborah & Schwartz, Steven & Stevens, Jan F. & Ho, Emily. (2011). Comparison of isothiocyanate metabolite levels and histone deacetylase activity in human subjects consuming broccoli sprouts or broccoli supplement. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(20). 10955-63.

Bromelain

Brien, S., Lewith, G., Walker, A., Hicks, S. M., & Middleton, D. (2004). Bromelain as a treatment for osteoarthritis: A review of clinical studies. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 1(3), 251–257.

Cabbage

Rao, R. & Samak, G. (2011). Role of glutamine in protection of intestinal epithelial tight junctions. Journal of Epithelial Biology & Pharmacology, 5(S1-M7), 47–54.

Camelina Oil

Chen, Hongjiang & Li, Dayuan & Saldeen, Tom & Romeo, Francesco & Mehta, Jawahar. (2002). Mixed tocopherol preparation Is superior to α-tocopherol alone against hypoxia–reoxygenation injury. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 291(2), 349-53.

Jiang, Qing & Elson-Schwab, Ilan & Courtemanche, Chantal & Ames, Bruce N. (2000). γ-Tocopherol and its major metabolite, in contrast to α-tocopherol, inhibit cyclooxygenase activity in macrophages and epithelial cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(21). 11494-9.

Jiang, Qing & Ames, Bruce. (2003). γ-Tocopherol, but not α-tocopherol, decreases proinflammatory eicosanoids and inflammation damage in rats. FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 17(8). 816-22.

Capros

May, K. & Gupta, R.C. & Miller, J. & Goad, J.T. & Lasher, M.A. & Conway, R. & Canerdy, T.D. (2015). Therapeutic efficacy and safety evaluation of a novel chromium supplement (Crominex®3+) in moderately arthritic horses. Jacobs Journal of Veterinary Science Research, 1(3).

Casein

Choi, SuJean & DiSilvio, Briana & H Fernstrom, Madelyn & Fernstrom, John. (2011). Effect of chronic protein ingestion on tyrosine and tryptophan levels and catecholamine and serotonin synthesis in rat brain. Nutritional Neuroscience, 14(6), 260-7.

CBD oil

Barrie, N. & Manolios, N. (2017). The endocannabinoid system in pain and inflammation: Its relevance to rheumatic disease. European Journal of Rheumatology, 4(3), 210-8.

Booz, G. W. (2011). Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 51(5), 1054–61.

Di Marzo, Vincenzo & Piscitelli, Fabiana. (2011). Gut feelings about the endocannabinoid system. Neurogastroenterology and Motility, 23(5), 391-8.

Gyires, K., & Zádori, Z. S. (2016). Role of cannabinoids in gastrointestinal mucosal defense and Inflammation. Current Neuropharmacology, 14(8), 935–51.

Kaplan, B. L. & Springs, A. E. & Kaminski, N. E. (2008). The profile of immune modulation by cannabidiol (CBD) involves deregulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). Biochemical Pharmacology, 76(6), 726–37.

Klauke, A.L., et al. (2013). The cannabinoid CB₂ receptor-selective phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene exerts analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. European Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 24(4), 608-20.

Kumar, Amit & Premoli, Marika & Aria, Francesca & Bonini, Sara & Maccarinelli, Giuseppina & Gianoncelli, Alessandra & Memo, Maurizio & Mastinu, Andrea. (2019). Cannabimimetic plants: are they new cannabinoidergic modulators? Planta, 249(6), 1681-94.

Manzanares, J. & Julian, M. & Carrascosa, A. (2006). Role of the cannabinoid system in pain control and therapeutic implications for the management of acute and chronic pain episodes. Current Neuropharmacology, 4(3), 239–57.

McDougle, Daniel & Watson, Josephine & Abdeen, Amr & Reheman, Adili & Caputo, Megan & Krapf, John & W. Johnson, Rodney & Kilian, Kristopher & Holinstat, Michael & Das, Aditi. (2017). Anti-inflammatory ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(10).

Starowicz, Katarzyna & Małek, Natalia & Przewlocka, Barbara. (2013). Cannabinoid receptors and pain. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Membrane Transport and Signaling, 2.

Styrczewska, Monika & Kulma, Anna & Ratajczak, Katarzyna & Amarowicz, Ryszard & Szopa, Jan. (2012). Cannabinoid-like anti-inflammatory compounds from flax fiber. Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters, 17(3), 479-99.

Turcotte, C., Blanchet, M. R., Laviolette, M., & Flamand, N. (2016). The CB2 receptor and its role as a regulator of inflammation. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 73(23), 4449–70.

Chasteberry

Bradaric, Zrinjka & May, Anna & Gehlen, Heidrun. (2013). Use of the chasteberry preparation Corticosal® for the treatment of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction in horses. Pferdeheilkunde, 29(6), 721-8.

Chia seeds

Ayerza, Ricardo & Coates, Wayne. (2005). Chia: Rediscovering a Forgotten Crop of the Aztecs. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

Castro-Martinez, R. & Pratt D.E. & Miller, E. E. (1986). Natural antioxidants of chia seeds. Presented at World Conference on Emerging Technologies in the Fats and Oils Industry, 1986, Champaign, IL: American Oil Chemists’ Society Press.

Eaton, Stanley & Konner, Melvin & Shostak, Marjorie. (1996). An evolutionary perspective enhances understanding of human nutritional requirements. The Journal of Nutrition, 126. 1732-40.

Scheer, James. (2001). The Magic of Chia: Revival of an Ancient Wonder Food. Berkley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Weber, C.W. & Gentry, H.S. & Kohlhepp, E.A. & McCrohan, P.R. (1991). The nutritional and chemical evaluation of chia seeds. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 26(2), 119-25.

Colostrum

Bhora, F.Y. & Dunkin B.J. & Batzri, S. & Aly, H.M. & Bass, B.L. & Sidawy, A.N. & Harmon, J.W. (1995). Effect of growth factors on cell proliferation and epithelialization in human skin. Journal of Surgical Research, 59(2), 236-44.

Blake, Stephen. (1999). Bovine colostrum: The forgotten miracle. Journal of the American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association, 18(2), 39-40.

Britigan, Bradley E. & Serody, Jonathan & Cohen, Myron. (1994). The role of lactoferrin as an anti-inflammatory molecule. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 357, 143-56.

Buckley, Jonathan & Abbott, M.J. & Brinkworth, Grant & Whyte, P.B.D. (2002). Bovine colostrum supplementation during endurance running training improves recovery, but not performance. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 5(2), 65-79.

Coombes, Jeff S. & Conacher, Michael & Austen, Simon K. & Marshall, Philip A. (2002). Dose effects of oral bovine colostrum on physical work capacity in cyclists. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(7), 1184-8.

Griffin, F. & Hopkins, W. & Rehrer, N. & Thomson, C. & Walmsley, A. (2001). The effects of dietary supplementation with bovine colostrum on the training, immunologic status, and performance of competitive distance runners. Annual Sport Science New Zealand Conference, September 2-30, Wellington, New Zealand.

Hofman, Zandrie & Smeets, Rolf & Verlaan, George & Lugt, Richard V.D. & Verstappen, Peter A. (2003). The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in elite field hockey players. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 12(4). 461-9.

Keech A. (2008). Peptide immunotherapy: The use of bovine colostrum proline-rich polypeptides in cytokine modulation for the alternative relief of allergic symptoms, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 119(1), S260.

Kuipers, Harm & Breda, Eric & Verlaan, G. & Smeets, Rolf. (2002). Effects of oral bovine colostrum supplementation on serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels. Nutrition, 18(7-8), 566-7.

Leppäluoto, J. & Rasi, S. & Martikkala, V. & Puukka, M. (2000). Bovine colostrum supplementation enhances physical performance on maximal exercise tests. 2000 Pre-Olympic Congress: International Congress on Sport Science, Sports Medicine and Physical Education, 7-13 September, Brisbane, Australia.

Moldoveanu, Zina & Tenovuo, Jorma & Pruitt, Kenneth M. & Mansson‐Rahemtulla, Britta & Mestecky, Jiri. (2006). Antibacterial properties of milk: IgA-peroxidase-lactoferrin interactions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 409(1), 848-50.

Molloy, Timothy & Wang, Yao & Murrell, George. (2003). The roles of growth factors in tendon and ligament healing. Sports Medicine, 33(5), 381-94.

Nitsch, Alejandro & P. Nitsch, Fabiola. (1998). The Clinical Use of Bovine Colostrum. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 13(2), 110-118.

Perryman, Lance & McGuire, T.C. (1980). Evaluation of immune system failure in horses and ponies. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 176(12), 1374-7.

Playford, R.J. & Floyd, D.N. & MacDonald, C.E. & Calnan, D.P. & Adenekan, R.O. & Johnson, W. & Goodlad, Robert & Marchbank, Tania. (1999). Bovine colostrum is health supplement which prevents NSAID induced gut damage. Gut, 44(5), 653-8.

Playford, Raymond J. & MacDonald, Christopher & Calnan, Denis P. & Floyd, David N. & Podas, Thrasyvoulos & Johnson, Wendy & Wicks, Anthony C. & Bashir, O. & Marchbank, Tania. (2001). Co-administration of the health food supplement, bovine colostrum, reduces the acute non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced increase in intestinal permeability. Clinical Science, 100(6), 627-33.

Sato, Kenji & Li, Yong & Foster, William & Fukushima, Kazumasa & Badlani, Neil & Adachi, Nobuo & Usas, Arvydas & Fu, Freddie H. & Huard, Johnny. (2003). Improvement of muscle healing through enhancement of muscle regeneration and prevention of fibrosis. Muscle & Nerve, 28(3). 365-72.

Stephan, W. & Dichtelmüller, H. (1990). Antibodies from colostrum in oral immunotherapy. Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, 28(1), 19-23.

Wadey, Alison L. & Muyderman, Hakan & Kwek, Perrin T. & Sims, Neil. (2009). Mitochondrial glutathione uptake: Characterization in isolated brain mitochondria and astrocytes in culture. Journal of Neurochemistry, 109(S1), 101-8.

Ward, Pauline P. & Uribe Luna, Sonia & Conneely, Orla M. (2002). Lactoferrin and host defense. Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 80(1), 95-102.

Electrolytes

Waller, Amanda & Heigenhauser, George & Lindinger, Michael. (2007). Electrolyte supplementation after moderate intensity exercise results in decreased plasma [TCO2] in Standardbreds. Equine and Comparative Exercise Physiology, 4(3-4), 149-58.

Figs

Odrowaz-Sypniewska, Margaret. (2006, Dec 10). Polish Arabian horses. Retrieved from http://www.angelfire.com/mi4/polcrt/Arab.html

Flavonoid antioxidants

Chen, Oliver & Milbury, Paul & Lapsley, Karen & Blumberg, Jeffrey. (2005). Flavonoids from almond skins are bioavailable and act synergistically with vitamins C and E to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation. The Journal of Nutrition, 135(6), 1366-73.

Seeram, Navindra & Aviram, Michael & Zhang, Yanjun & Henning, Susanne & Feng, Lydia & Dreher, Mark & Heber, David. (2008). Comparison of antioxidant potency of commonly consumed polyphenol-rich beverages in the United States. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(4), 1415-22.

Green-lipped mussel

Bierer, T.L. & Bui, L.M. (2002). Improvement of arthritic signs in dogs fed green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus). Journal of Nutrition, 132(6), 1634S-36S.

Rainsford, Kim & W. Whitehouse, M. (1980). Gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) preparation. Arzneimittel-Forschung, 30(12), 2128-32.

Wakimoto, Toshiyuki & Kondo, Hikaru & Nii, Hirohiko & Kimura, Kaori & Egami, Yoko & Oka, Yusuke & Yoshida, Masae & … Abe, Ikuro. (2011). Furan fatty acid as an anti-inflammatory component from the green-lipped mussel Perna canaliculus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(42), 17533-7.

Haritaki

Suk, Tum & Koo, Yun-Chang & Suh, Hyung Joo & Kim, Kyung-Yong & Lee, Kwangwon. (2010). Preventive effects of chebulic acid isolated from Terminalia chebula on advanced glycation endproduct-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 131(3), 567-74.

Hemp oil

Pellegrini, Franklin. (2005). Results of a large-scale necroscopic study of equine colon ulcers. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 25(3), 113-117.

HSCAS/smectite healing clay

Shebl, M. A. & Hafiz, Naglaa A. (2010). Genotoxic studies of yeast cell wall (YCW) and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) on the DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations induced by aflatoxin in broiler. Journal of American Science, 6(10), 961-7.

Medicinal mushrooms

El Khoury, Dalia & Cuda, C. & Luhovyy, B.L. & Anderson, Gerald. (2012). Beta-glucan: Health benefits in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 2012.

Hetland, Geir & Ohno, Naohito & Aaberge, Ingeborg & Løvik, Martinus. (2000). Protective effect of β-glucan against systemic Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 27(2), 111-6.

Vetvicka, Vaclav & Vetvickova, Jana. (2009). Effects of yeast-derived β-glucans on blood cholesterol and macrophage functionality. Journal of Immunotoxicology, 6(1), 30-5.

Wasser, S. (2014). Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges. Biomedical Journal, 37(6): 345-56.

Oat bran (see also Beta-glucan)

Tsikitis, Vassiliki & E. Albina, Jorge & S. Reichner, Jonathan. (2004). β-glucan affects leukocyte navigation in a complex chemotactic gradient. Surgery, 136(2), 384-9.

Organic apple powder

Chen, Oliver & Milbury, Paul & Lapsley, Karen & Blumberg, Jeffrey. (2005). Flavonoids from almond skins are bioavailable and act synergistically with vitamins C and E to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation. The Journal of Nutrition, 135(6), 1366-73.

Seeram, Navindra & Aviram, Michael & Zhang, Yanjun & Henning, Susanne & Feng, Lydia & Dreher PhD, Mark & Heber, David. (2008). Comparison of antioxidant potency of commonly consumed polyphenol-rich beverages in the United States. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(4), 1415-22.

Organic barley grass

Hammel-Dupont, C.L. & Bessman, S.P. (1970). The stimulation of hemoglobin synthesis by porphyrins. Biochemical Medicine, 4(1), 55-60.

Organic freeze-dried beet root juice

Bailey, S. & Fulford, J. & Vanhatalo, A., et al. (2010). Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during knee-extensor exercise in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 109(1), 135-48.

Vanhatalo, A. & Bailey, S. & Blackwell, J., et al. (2010). Acute and chronic effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to moderate-intensity and incremental exercise. American Journal of Physiology, 299(4), R1121-31.

Organic freeze-dried orange powder

Galati, E.M. & Trovato, A. & Kirjavainen, S. & Forestieri, A.M. & Trovato, A. & Tripodo, Maria. (1996). Biological effects of hesperidin, a citrus bioflavonoid (Note-I): Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Il Farmaco, 51(3), 219-21.

Polyphenol antioxidants

Bryant, Rebecca J. & Ryder, Jeff & Martino, Paul & Kim, Junghoun & Craig, Bruce. (2003). Effects of vitamin E and C supplementation either alone or in combination on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation in trained cyclists. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17(4), 792-800.

Poultice ingredients

Child, Lydia. (1837). The family nurse. London, UK: Richard Bentley.

Prebiotics/Probiotics

Abrams, Steven & Griffin, Ian & Hawthorne, Keli & Liang, Lily & K Gunn, Sheila & Darlington, Gretchen & J. Ellis, Kenneth. (2005). A combination of prebiotic short- and long-chain inulin-type fructans enhance calcium absorption and bone mineralization in young adolescents. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82(2), 471-6.

Ahrné, Siv & Nobaek, S. & Jeppsson, B. & Adlerberth, Ingegerd & Wold, Agnes & Molin, Goran. (1998). The normal Lactobacillus flora of healthy rectal and oral mucosa. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 85(1), 88-94.

Benno, Yoshimi & Nakao, Hiroyuki & Uchida, Kiyohisa & Mitsuoka, Tomotari. (1992). Impact of the advances in age on the gastrointestinal microflora of beagle dogs. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science / Japanese Society of Veterinary Science, 54(4), 703-6.

Bloksma, Nanne & De Heer, Emile & van Dijk, H. & Willers, J.M. (1979). Adjuvanticity of lactobacilli. I. Differential effects of viable and killed bacteria. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 37(2), 367-75.

Davis, C.P. & Cleven, D. & Balish, E. & Yale, C.E. (1977). Bacterial association in the gastrointestinal tract of beagle dogs. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 34(2). 194-206.

Dinan, Timothy G. & Cryan, John. (2012). Regulation of the stress response by the gut microbiota: Implications for psychoneuroendocrinology. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(9), 1369-78.

Effect of live yeast in equine diets. (2013, June 19). Retrieved from Kentucky Equine Research website: https://ker.com/equinews/effect-live-yeast-equine-diets/

El Khoury, Dalia & Cuda, C. & Luhovyy, B.L. & Anderson, Gerald. (2012). Beta glucan: Health benefits in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 2012.

Expertanswer (Expertsvar in Swedish). (2010, November 4). Lactobacillus reuteri good for health, Swedish study finds. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 21, 2019 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/11/101102131302.htm

Gibson, G.R. & Saavedra, J.M. & MacFarlane, S. & MacFarlane, G.T. (1997). Gastrointestinal microbial disease and probiotics. In R. Fuller (Ed.), Probiotics: Therapeutic and Other Beneficial Effects (pp. 10-39). London, UK: Chapman Hall.

He, Fang & Ouwehand, Arthur & Isolauri, Erika & Hosoda, Masataka & Benno, Yoshimi & Salminen, Seppo. (2001). Differences in composition and mucosal adhesion of bifidobacteria isolated from healthy adults and healthy seniors. Current Microbiology, 43(5), 351-4.

Hetland, Geir & Ohno, Naohito & Aaberge, Ingeborg & Løvik, Martinus. (2000). Protective effect of β-glucan against systemic Streptococcus pneumonia infection in mice. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 27(2), 111-6.

Hooda, Seema & Minamoto, Yasushi & Suchodolski, Jan & Swanson, Kelly. (2012). Current state of knowledge: The canine gastrointestinal microbiome. Animal Health Research Reviews, 13(1), 78-88.

Isolauri, E. (1995). Intestinal Integrity and IBD. In G. Kluwer & J. Bartelsman & S. van Deventer (Eds.), Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (pp. 553-5). Lancaster, UK: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Kil, D.Y. & Swanson, Kelly. (2010). Companion animals symposium: Role of microbes in canine and feline health. Journal of Animal Science, 89(5), 1498-505.

Maukonen, Johanna & Mättö, Jaana & Suihko, Maija-Liisa & Saarela, Maria. (2009). Intra-individual diversity and similarity of salivary and faecal microbiota. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 57(12), 1560-8.

Nishida, S. & Ishikawa, Y. & Lino, H. (2008). Effect of Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 on the intestinal transit time, the condition of defecation and intestinal microflora: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study among healthy Japanese women. Pharmacometrics, 74(5/6), 99-106.

Palframan, R. J. & Gibson, G.R. & Rastall, R.A. (2003). Development of a quantitative tool for the comparison of the prebiotic effect of dietary oligosaccharides. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 37(4). 281-4.

Perdigon, G. & Alvarez, Susana & Medina, M. & Vintiñi, E. & Roux, E. (1999). Influence of oral administration of lactic acid bacteria on IgA producing cells associated to bronchus. International Journal of Immunotherapy and Pharmacology, 12(2), 97-102.

Perdigon, G. & Fuller, R. & Raya, R. (2001). Lactic acid bacteria and their effect on the immune system. Current Issues in Intestinal Microbiology, 2(1), 27-42.

Reichstein, Markus, et al. (2013). Climate extremes and the carbon cycle. Nature, 500(7462), 287-95.

Saminen, E., et al. (1988). Preservation of intestinal integrity during radiotherapy using live lactobacillus cultures. Clinical Radiology, 39(4), 435-7.

Simark-Mattsson, Charlotte & Emilson, Claes-Göran & Håkansson, Eva & Jacobsson, Catharina & Roos, Kristian & Holm, Stig. (2007). Lactobacillus-mediated interference of mutans streptococci in caries-free vs. caries-active subjects. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 115(4). 308-14.

Simpson, J.M. & Martineau, B. & Jones, W.E. & Ballam, Joan & Mackie, Roderick. (2002). Characterization of fecal bacterial populations in canines: Effects of age, breed and dietary fiber. Microbial Ecology, 44(2), 186-97.

Suchodolski, Jan. (2011). Intestinal microbiota of dogs and cats: A bigger world than we thought. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 41(2), 261-72.

Thomas, François & Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik & Rebuffet, Etienne & Czjzek, Mirjam & Michel, Gurvan. (2011). Environmental and gut Bacteroidetes: The food connection. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2(93), 93.

Vetvicka, Vaclav & Vetvickova, Jana. (2009). Effects of yeast-derived β-glucans on blood cholesterol and macrophage functionality. Journal of Immunotoxicology, 6(1), 30-5.

Yamazaki, Shoji & Kamimura, Hiroshi & Momose, Hiroshi & Kawashima, Takuji & Ueda, Katsumoto. (1982). Protective effect of bifidobacterium monoassociation against lethal activity of Escherichia coli. Bifidobacteria Microflora, 1(1), 55-9.

Shilajit

Gildea, John & Roberts, David & Bush, Zachary. (2017). Protective effects of lignite extract supplement on intestinal barrier function in glyphosate-mediated tight junction injury. Journal of Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, 3(1), 1.

Kotb-El-Sayed, Mohamed & Amin, Hatem & Al-kaf, Ali. (2012). Anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-ulcerogenic effects of shilajit on gastric ulcer in rats. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 8(1), 26-39.

Trivedi, N.A. & B. Mazumdar & Bhatt, Jagatkumar & Hemavathi, K.G. (2004). Effect of shilajit on blood glucose and lipid profile in alloxaninduced diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 36(6).

Spirulina

Anitha, L. & Chandralekha K. (2010) Effect of supplementation of spirulina on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile of male non-insulin-dependent diabetics. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences, 1(1), 36-46.

Bhowmik, D. & Dubey, J. & Mehra, S. (2009). Probiotic efficiency of Spirulina platensis – stimulating growth of lactic acid bacteria. World Journal of Dairy and Food Sciences, 4(2), 160-163.

Kalafati, Maria & Jamurtas, Thanasis & Nikolaidis, Michalis & Paschalis, Vassilis & Theodorou, Anastasios & Sakellariou, Giorgos & Koutedakis, Yiannis & Kouretas, Dimitris. (2010). Ergogenic and antioxidant effects of spirulina supplementation in humans. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42(1), 142-51.

Turmeric (curcumin)

Anand P. & Kunnumakkara, A.B. & Newman, Robert A. & Aggarwal, Bharat B. (2007). Bioavailability of curcumin: Problems and promises. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 4(6), 807-818.

Higdon, Jane & Drake, Victoria J. & Delage, Barbara. (2009). Curcumin. Retrieved from https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/dietary-factors/phytochemicals/curcumin

Srimal, R.C. & Dhawan, B.N. (1973). Pharmacology of diferuloyl methane (curcumin), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 25(6), 447-52.

Undenatured whey protein

Rob Markus, C. & Olivier, B. & Em Panhuysen, Geert & Van Der Gugten, Jan & S. Alles, Martine & Tuiten, Adriaan & G.M. Westenberg, Herman & Fekkes, Durk & Koppeschaar, Hans & de Haan, Edward. (2000). The bovine protein alpha-lactalbumin increases the plasma ratio of tryptophan to the other large neutral amino acids, and in vulnerable subjects raises brain serotonin activity, reduces cortisol concentration, and improves mood under stress. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(6), 1536-44.

Yeast-bound copper

Vinson, Joe & Tompkins, Thomas & Agbor, Gabriel. (2007). Comparative Bioavailability of Mineral-enriched Gluconates and Yeast in Rat Liver After Depletion–Repletion Feeding. Biological Trace Element Research, 118(2). 104-10.

Yeast-bound zinc

Vinson, Joe & Tompkins, Thomas & Agbor, Gabriel. (2007). Comparative Bioavailability of Mineral-enriched Gluconates and Yeast in Rat Liver After Depletion–Repletion Feeding. Biological Trace Element Research, 118(2). 104-10.

 


COMMON FEED AND SUPPLEMENT INGREDIENTS NOT USED BY BIOSTAR 

Soy

Perry, Edward & Ciliberto, Federico & Hennessy, David & Moschini, GianCarlo. (2016). Genetically engineered crops and pesticide use in U.S. maize and soybeans. Science Advances, 2(8).

Wheat, wheat bran & gluten

Davis, William. (2011). Wheat belly: Lose the wheat, lose the weight, and find your path back to health. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press.

Djokovic, Novak. (2014). Serve to win. London, UK: Transworld Publishers LTD.

Saunders, R.M. & Walker, H.G. (1969). The sugars of wheat bran. Cereal Chemistry, 46, 85-92.

van der Kolk, J.H. & van Putten, L.A. & Mulder, C.J. & Grinwis, G.C.M. & Reijm, M. & Butler C.M. & von Blomberg, B.M.E. (2012). Gluten-dependent antibodies in horses with inflammatory small bowel disease (ISBD). Veterinary Quarterly, 32(1), 3-11.

Rice bran

Friedrich, M.J. (2013). Genetic damage linked to elevated arsenic levels in rice. Journal of the American Medical Association, 310(11), 1113.

Preservatives

BHA
National Toxicology Program. (2016). Report on carcinogens, fourteenth edition. Research Triangle Park, N.C. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Retrieved from https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/roc14

BHT
Schrader, T.J. & Cooke, G.M. (2000). Examination of selected food additives and organochlorine food contaminants for androgenic activity in vitro. Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology, 53(2), 278-88.

Ethoxyquin
Błaszczyk, Alina & Augustyniak, Aleksandra & Skolimowski, Janusz. (2013). Ethoxyquin: An antioxidant used in animal feed. International Journal of Food Science, 2013, 1-12.

Artificial sweeteners

Suez, Jotham & Korem, Tal & Zeevi, David & Zilberman-Schapira, Gili & A. Thaiss, Christoph & Maza, Ori & Israeli, David & … Elinav, Eran. (2014). Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota. Nature, 514, 181-86.

“Natural” and artificial flavorings

MacVean, Mary. (2014, August 15). Food buyers lean toward 'natural,' a claim that's hard to define. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from www.latimes.com/health/la-he-natural-20140816-story.html.

Rangan, Urvashi & McMillan, Suzanne & Friedrich, Bruce & Lovera, Patty & Olson, Erik & Gilman, Steve & Maltby, Ed & Hubbard, Kristina & Reitman-White, Natalie & Culpepper, Jessica. “Citizen petition…to request the Secretary of Agriculture to issue an interpretive rule prohibiting the ‘natural’ label on meat and poultry products.” Consumer Reports National Research Center. 26 Jun 2014.

Schatzker, M. (2016). The Dorito effect: The surprising new truth about food and flavor. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

 

COMMON SOAP & SHAMPOO INGREDIENTS NOT USED BY BIOSTAR

Methylisothiazolinone (MIT)

Castanedo-Tardana, M. and K. Zug. (2013). Methylisothiazolinone. Dermatitis, 24(1), 2-6.

Cocamide

Chemicals considered or listed under Proposition 65: Coconut oil diethanolamine condensate (cocamide diethanolamine). (2019). California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/coconut-oil-diethanolamine-condensate

Hexyl cinnamal

Schnuch, Axel & Uter, Wolfgang & Geier, Johannes & Lessmann, Holger & J Frosch, Peter. (2007). Sensitization to 26 fragrances to be labelled according to current European regulation: Results of the IVDK and review of the literature. Contact Dermatitis, 57(1), 1-10.

Polysorbate 20

1,4-Dioxane. (2019). Campaign for Safe Cosmetics. Retrieved from http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/14-dioxane/ [1,4-dioxane is a known carcinogen and contaminant of the common shampoo ingredient polysorbate 20. Many references are included with this article.]

Triclosan and triclocarban

Haiken, Melanie. (2013, December 16). Antibacterial soaps may pose health risks, FDA says; should they be banned? Retrieved from the Forbes website: https://www.forbes.com/sites/melaniehaiken/2013/12/16/antibacterial-soaps-may-pose-health-risk-fda-says/#1bb5a6b479da

Halden, Rolf U. (2014). On the need and speed of regulating triclosan and triclocarban in the United States. Environmental Science and Technology, 48(19).

U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2019, May). Antibacterial soap? You can skip it, use plain soap and water. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/antibacterial-soap-you-can-skip-it-use-plain-soap-and-water

OTHER TOPICS RELATED TO BIOSTAR'S WHOLE-FOOD MISSION

Food and Water Quality

Food-state nutrients vs. synthetic nutrients & nutrient isolates

Burton-Freeman, Britt M. & Sesso, Howard D. (2014). Whole food versus supplement: Comparing the clinical evidence of tomato intake and lycopene supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors. Advances in Nutrition, 5(5), 457-85.

Carr, Anitra & Vissers, Margreet. (2013). Synthetic or food-derived vitamin C—are they equally bioavailable?. Nutrients, 5, 4284-304.

Clarke, John & Riedl, Kenneth & Bella, Deborah & Schwartz, Steven & Stevens, Jan F. & Ho, Emily. (2011). Comparison of isothiocyanate metabolite levels and histone deacetylase activity in human subjects consuming broccoli sprouts or broccoli supplement. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(20), 10955-63.

Heinonen, O.P. & Albanes, D. (1994). The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. New England Journal of Medicine, 330(15), 1029-35.

Klein, Eric A. & Thompson, Ian M. & Tangen, Catherine & Crowley, John J. & Lucia, Marshall & Goodman, Phyllis J. & Minasian, Lori M. & … Baker, Laurence. (2011). Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: The selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 306(14), 1549-56.

Miller, Edgar R. & Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto & Dalal, Darshan & Riemersma, Rudolph A. & Appel, Lawrence J. & Guallar, Eliseo. (2005). Meta-analysis: High-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(1), 37-46.

Parker-Pope, Tara. (2007, November 5). The case for real food. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/11/05/the-case-for-real-food/

Calcium-rich foods vs. supplemental calcium

Anderson, John & Kruszka, Bridget & Delaney, Joseph & He, Ka & Burke, Gregory & Alonso, Alvaro & Bild, Diane & Budoff, Matthew & Michos, Erin. (2016). Calcium intake from diet and supplements and the risk of coronary artery calcification and its progression among older adults: 10‐year follow‐up of the Multi‐Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Journal of the American Heart Association, 5(10).

The problem with "nutritionism" (a belief that the key to understanding whole food is to understand isolated nutrients)

Pollan, Michael. (2007, January 28). Unhappy meals. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/28/magazine/28nutritionism.t.html?em&ex=1170133200&en=338f8f9c3c83a34e&ei=5087

Pollan, Michael. (2009). In defense of food: An eater’s manifesto. New York, NY: Penguin Press.

Synthetic amino acid manufacturing: Environmental impact

Marinussen, M. & Kool, A. (2010). Environmental impacts of synthetic amino acid production. Gouda, Netherlands: Blonk Consultants, LLC.

The historical feeding and treatment of horses

Stewart, John. (1858). The stable book: Being a treatment on the management of horses. New York, NY: A.O. Moore.

Youatt, William. (1860). The history, treatment, and diseases of the horse: Embracing an account of his introduction and use in various countries ... with a treatise draught, and a copious index. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.

The historical feeding and treatment of dogs

Leighton, Robert. (1907). The new book of the dog. London, UK: Cassell & Co.

Walsh, John Henry. (1887). The dog in health and disease. London, UK: Longmans, Green, and Co.

Custom diets for healthier dogs

Ward, Ernie. Chow hounds: Why our dogs are getting fatter — a vet's plan to save their lives. Deerfield Beach, FL. Health Communications.

The facts about rawhide chews

The Humane Society of the United States. What is that they're wearing: The skin trade. Retrieved from Internet Archive website: https://web.archive.org/web/20090612061509/http://www.hsus.org/wildlife/fur_and_trapping/betrayal_of_trust_the_global_trade_in_dog_and_cat_fur/an_hsus_investigation_what_is_that_theyre_wearing/what_is_that_theyre_wearing_the_skin_trade.html

The Big Food industry: What has happened to real food?

Estabrook, Barry. (2012). Tomatoland: How modern industrial agriculture destroyed our most alluring fruit. Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel.

Warner, Melanie. (2013). Pandora’s lunchbox: How processed food took over the American meal. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

GMO research and legislation

Bøhn, Thomas & Cuhra, Marek & Traavik, Terje & Sanden, Monica & Fagan, John & Primicerio, Raul. (2014). Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: Glyphosate accumulates in Roundup-Ready GM soybeans. Food Chemistry, 153, 207-15.

Hallenbeck, Terri. (2014, April 27). How GMO labeling came to pass in Vermont. The Burlington Free Press. Retrieved from https://www.burlingtonfreepress.com/story/news/politics/2014/04/27/gmo-labeling-came-pass-vermont/8166519/

Keeler, Barbara & Lappe, Marc. (2001). Some food for FDA regulation. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2001-jan-07-op-9297-story.html [This article is largely a response to the Padgette, S.R. et al. article referenced below.]

Kraft, Nina. (2012, July 11). Rotter fetere av genmat. Norwegian University of Veterinary Science. Retrieved from https://forskning.no/norges-veterinaerhogskole-genmodifisert-mat-partner/rotter-fetere-av-genmat/693449 [This study reports that rats fed genetically engineered food ate more, got fatter and were less able to digest proteins due to alterations in the micro-structure of their intestines. An automated English translation of this Norwegian language article can be found here ].

Padgette, S.R. & Taylor, N.B. & Nida, D.L. & Bailey, M.R. & MacDonald, J. & Holden, L.R. & Fuchs, R.L. (1996). The composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybean seeds is equivalent to that of conventional soybeans. The Journal of Nutrition, 126(3), 702-16. [This is a corporate-commissioned, Monsanto-funded study; see above reference to Keeler’s and Lappe’s Los Angeles Times article for an independent interpretation of this paper, which includes criticism of the Monsanto group’s research methods, conclusions and omissions of important study data.]

Vendômois, Joël & Roullier, Francois & Cellier, Dominique & Séralini, Gilles-Eric. (2009). A comparison of the effects of three GM corn varieties on mammalian health. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 5(7), 706-26.

The effects of glyphosate (Roundup) on animals and humans

Bøhn, Thomas & Cuhra, Marek & Traavik, Terje & Sanden, Monica & Fagan, John & Primicerio, Raul. (2014). Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: Glyphosate accumulates in Roundup-Ready GM soybeans. Food Chemistry, 153, 207-15.

Cuhra, Marek. (2015). Review of GMO safety assessment studies: Glyphosate residues in Roundup-Ready crops is an ignored issue. Environmental Sciences Europe, 27(20).

Samsel, A. & Seneff S. (2013). Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 6(4), 159–84.

Samsel, A. & Seneff, S. (2013). Glyphosate’s suppression of cytochrome P450 enzymes and amino acid biosynthesis by the gut microbiome: Pathways to modern diseases. Entropy, 15(4), 1416-63.

Scientists warns of dire consequences with widespread use of glyphosate. (2010). The Organic and Non-GMO Report. Retrieved from https://non-gmoreport.com/articles/may10/consequenceso_widespread_glyphosate_use.php

Walters, C. (2011). GMOs, glyphosate and tomorrow: An interview with Don Huber, PhD. Acres U.S.A., 41(5).

Arsenic and heavy metal toxicity

Dougherty, C.P. & Henricks, Holtz S. & Reinert, J.C. & Panyacosit, L. & Axelrad, D.A. & Woodruff, T.J. (2000). Dietary exposures to food contaminants across the United States. Environmental Research, 84(2), 170-85.

Friedrich, M.J. (2013). Genetic damage linked to elevated arsenic levels in rice. Journal of the American Medical Association, 310(11), 1113.

Vogt, Rainbow & Bennett, Deborah & Cassady, Diana & Frost, Joshua & Ritz, Beate & Hertz-Picciotto, Irva. (2012). Cancer and non-cancer health effects from food contaminant exposures for children and adults in California: A risk assessment. Environmental Health, 11(1), 83.

Weiss, B. (2000). Vulnerability of children and the developing brain to neurotoxic hazards. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(Suppl. 3), 375-81.

Hay quality

West, Christy M. (2008, May 1). Fiber in hay: What’s the magic number?. Retrieved from The Horse website: https://thehorse.com/122330/fiber-in-hay-whats-the-magic-number/

Zobiole, Luiz & Júnior, Rubem & Huber, D.M. & Constantin, Jamil & de Castro, César & Oliveira, Fábio & de Oliveira, Adilson. (2009). Glyphosate reduces shoot concentration of mineral nutrients in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. Plant Soil, 328(1-2), 57-69.

Feed contamination: Sources and case studies

Another positive drug test related to dietary supplement contamination [Blog post]. (2010, September 28). Retrieved from https://thecatlinperspective.wordpress.com/2010/09/28/another-positive-drug-test-related-to-dietary-supplement-contamination/

Burley, Dan. (2015, January 2). Feed company hasn't pulled food linked to St. Helena horse deaths. Retrieved from The Island Packet website: https://www.islandpacket.com/news/business/article33624921.html

California feed mill ordered to pay $2.4M after 49 horses suffer monensin poisoning. (2018, November 5). Retrieved from https://www.paulickreport.com/horse-care-category/california-feed-mill-ordered-to-pay-2-4m-after-49-horses-suffer-monensin-poisoning/

Cavallarin, Laura & Tabacco, Ernesto & Antoniazzi, Sara & Borreani, Giorgio. (2011). Aflatoxin accumulation in whole crop maize silage as a result of aerobic exposure. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 91(13), 2419-25.

Desta, Belainesh & Maldonado, Gizela & Reid, Herman & Puschner, Birgit & Maxwell, James & Agasan, Alice & Humphreys, Leigh & Holt, Thomas. (2011). Acute selenium toxicosis in polo ponies. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 23(3), 623-8.

Gillam, Carey & Ingwersen, Julie. (2013, Febuary 25). Dog food recall underscores toxic danger in drought-hit U.S. corn. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/usa-corn-aflatoxin/dog-food-recall-underscores-toxic-danger-in-drought-hit-u-s-corn-idUSL1N0BP9SP20130225

Lakeland Animal Nutrition fined for contaminated equine feed. (2015, January 8). Retrieved from https://horseauthority.co/lakeland-animal-nutrition-fined-for-contaminated-equine-feed/

Pöllöläinen, Hedwig. (2009, April 23). Pharmacy admits their 'mistake' killed 21 Venezuelan polo horses. Retrieved from https://scienceblogs.com/grrlscientist/2009/04/23/pharmacy-admits-their-mistake

U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2019). Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/safety/recalls-market-withdrawals-safety-alerts [Updated continuously, includes animal feeds]

Hydration and water quality

Bucher, John R. (2007). NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of sodium dichromate dihydrate administered in drinking water to male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and male BALB/c and am3-C57BL/6 mice. Retrieved from National Toxicology Program website: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/st_rpts/tox072.pdf

Cone, Marla. (2011, October 3). Many U.S. drinking water wells contaminated with arsenic, other elements. Retrieved from Scientific American website: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/us-drinking-water-wells-contaminated-with-arsenic-other-elements/

Gottipati, Ramakrishna & Susmita, Mishra. (2013). Simultaneous removal of trivalent and hexavalent chromium by activated carbon: Effect of solution pH and pore size distribution of adsorbent. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, 32(4).

Riebl, Shaun K. & Davy, Brenda M. (2013). The hydration equation: Update on water balance and cognitive performance. ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal, 17(6). 21-28.

Sedman, Richard & Beaumont, Jay & Budroe, John & Vidair, Charles. (2011). Public health goals for chemicals in drink water: Hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). Retrieved from California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment: https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/water/chemicals/phg/cr6phg072911.pdf

Sharp, Renee & Pestano, Paul J. (2013). Water treatment contaminants: Forgotten toxics in American water. Retrieved from Environmental Working Group website: https://static.ewg.org/reports/2013/water_filters/2013_tap_water_report_final.pdf

 

Food as medicine

Ayurvedic medicine

Caldecott, Todd. (2006). Ayurveda: The divine science of life. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Frawley, David. (1986). The yoga of herbs: An Ayurvedic guide to herbal medicine. Twin Lakes, WI. Lotus Press.

Frawley, David. (2001). Ayurvedic healing: A comprehensive guide. Twin Lakes, WI. Lotus Press.

Shea, Bridgette. (2018). Handbook of Chinese medicine and Ayurveda: An integrated practice of ancient healing traditions. Rochester, VT. Healing Arts Press.

The rise of Western medicine

Bealle, Morris A. (1949) The drug story; a factological history of America’s $10,000,000,000 drug cartel: Its methods, operations, hidden ownership, profits and terrific impact on the health of the American people. Washington, D.C.: Columbia Publishing Company.

Brown, E. Richard. (1979). Rockefeller medicine men: Medicine and capitalism in America. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Light, Donald W. (2014, June 27). New prescription drugs: A major health risk with few offsetting advantages. Retrieved from https://ethics.harvard.edu/blog/new-prescription-drugs-major-health-risk-few-offsetting-advantages

Mayo Clinic News Network. Nearly 7 in 10 Americans take prescription drugs, Mayo Clinic, Olmsted Medical Center find. (2013, June 19). Retrieved from https://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/discussion/nearly-7-in-10-americans-take-prescription-drugs-mayo-clinic-olmsted-medical-center-find/

Reed, Charles A. L. (1901). The president’s address, delivered at the fifty-second annual meeting of the American Medical Association, held at St. Paul, Minn., June 4-7, 1901. Science, 36(23), 1599-1606.

U.S. Federal Trade Commission. (2015). Competition in the pet medications industry: Prescription portability and distribution practices. Retrieved from https://www.ftc.gov/system/files/documents/reports/competition-pet-medications-industry-prescription-portability-distribution-practices/150526-pet-meds-report.pdf

Medications and the nutrients they deplete

A practical guide to avoiding drug-induced nutrient depletion. (2016, December 11). Nutrition Review. Retrieved from https://nutritionreview.org/2016/12/practical-guide-avoiding-drug-induced-nutrient-depletion/

Azarpeykan, Sara & Dittmer, Keren & Gee, E.K. & Marshall, J.C. & Wallace, J. & Elder, Peter & Acke, Els & Thompson, Keith. (2016). Influence of blanketing and season on vitamin D and parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in horses in New Zealand. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 56, 75-84.

Mathieu, Leigh. (2017, March 13). Drug-induced nutrient depletion: Warnings not listed on your RX labels. Retrieved from https://www.coastalpharmacyandwellness.com/drug-induced-nutrient-depletions-not-listed-on-rx/

Medicinal mushrooms

Hetland, G. & Ohno, N., et al. (2000). Protective effect of β-glucan against systemic Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 27(2), 111-6.

 

Stress and the G.I. tract 

The gut microbiota

Samsel, A. & Seneff S. (2013). Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 6(4), 159–84.

Samsel, A. & and Seneff, S. (2013). Glyphosate’s suppression of cytochrome P450 enzymes and amino acid biosynthesis by the gut microbiome: Pathways to modern diseases. Entropy, 15(4), 1416-63.

Suez, Jotham & Korem, Tal & Zeevi, David & Zilberman-Schapira, Gili & A. Thaiss, Christoph & Maza, Ori & Israeli, David & … Elinav, Eran. (2014). Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota. Nature, 514, 181-86.

Stress and the gut/brain connection

Chetty, Sundari & Friedman, Aaron & Taravosh-Lahn, Kereshmeh & Kirby, Elizabeth D. & Mirescu, Christian & Guo, Fuzheng & Krupik, Danna &… Kaufer, Daniela. (2014). Stress and glucocorticoids promote oligodendrogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Molecular Psychiatry, 19(12), 1275-83.

Mitochondria, energy and stress

Wallace, Douglas C. et al. (2015). Mitochondrial functions modulate neuroendocrine, metabolic, inflammatory, and transcriptional responses to acute psychological stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(48), E6614-23.

Obesity in horses

Thatcher, Craig & Pleasant, Scott & Geor, Raymond & Elvinger, F & Negrin, K.A. & Franklin, J. & Gay, Louisa & Werre, S.R. (2008). Prevalence of obesity in mature horses: An equine body condition study. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 92(2), 222.

Equine metabolic syndrome and Cushing's disease

Morgan, Ruth A. & Keen, John A. & Walker, Brian & Hadoke, Patrick W. F. (2016). Vascular dysfunction in horses with endocrinopathic laminitis. PLoS ONE, 11(9).

Equine gastric ulcers

Andrews, Frank & Larson, C. & Harris, P. (2015). Nutritional management of gastric ulceration. Equine Veterinary Education, 29(1).

 

Other equine and canine health topics

Activity and exercises for connective tissue support

Oke, Stacey. (2010, January 1). Muscles, Tendons, and Ligaments. Retrieved from The Horse website: https://thehorse.com/154143/muscles-tendons-and-ligaments/

Bones and bone remodeling

Lawrence, L.A. (2005). Effects of exercise and training on skeletal development in horses. Advances in Equine Nutrition, 3, 219-226.

van Weeren, Paul & Brama, P.A.J. & Barneveld, A. (2005). Exercise at young age may influence the final quality of the equine musculoskeletal system. Proceedings of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 46, 29-35.

Equine circulation

Hampson, B.A. & de Laat, Melody & Mills, Paul & Pollitt, Chris. (2010). Distances travelled by feral horses in 'outback' Australia. Equine Veterinary Journal, 42(38), 582-6.

Lesté-Lasserre, Christa. (2010, Jun 15). Studies track horses’ movement patterns. Retrieved from https://thehorse.com/154602/studies-track-horses-movement-patterns/

Respiration and respiratory disease

Cheetham, Jon & Holcombe, Susan J. & Ducharme, Norm. (2014). Upper airway function of normal horses during exercise. In Equine sports medicine and surgery: Basic and clinical sciences of the equine athlete (pp. 529-47). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

Oke, Stacey. (2017, October 23). The equine respiratory system. Retrieved from The Horse website: https://thehorse.com/154185/the-equine-respiratory-system/

Equine protozoal encephalitis (EPM): Prevention and treatment

EPM: Understanding this debilitating disease. (2016). Retrieved from American Association of Equine Practitioners website: https://aaep.org/horsehealth/epm-understanding-debilitating-disease

Reed, Stephen & Furr, Martin & Howe, D.K. & Johnson, A.L. & Mackay, Robert & Morrow, Jennifer & Pusterla, N. & Witonsky, S. (2016). Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis: An updated consensus statement with a focus on parasite biology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 30(2), 491-502.

Lyme disease: Prevention and nutritional support

Doucleff, Michaeleen & Greenhalgh, Jane. (2017, March 6). Forbidding forecast for Lyme disease in the northeast. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2017/03/06/518219485/forbidding-forecast-for-lyme-disease-in-the-northeast

Levi, T.A.M & Kilpatrick & Mangel, M. & Wilmers, C.C. (2012). Deer, predators, and the emergence of Lyme disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(27), 10942-7.